Most managers don’t feel effective unless they obey the old 80-20 rule, which states that in almost any activity 80% of the results come from 20% of the causes. That is, they feel compelled to kill four out of five ideas. Do that through three layers of evaluation and you’ve eliminated 99 out of 100 ideas. Now, that is efficient. Of course, it also means the survivor is highly unlikely to offer much of anything in the way of real innovation.