The essence of project-based, online collaborative learning is communication because positive group formation and learning occur through on-going dialogue (Kemery, 2000). Asynchronous communications can be utilized for much of the collaborative effort, through email with attachments and private forums. Additionally, synchronous private chat rooms can be used advantageously to facilitate collaborative learning (Lai, 1999). Synchronous communications are critical for establishing team roles, responsibilities, goals, deadlines, and for resolving differences of opinion. Team chats are also important for building relationships, encouraging one another, maintaining momentum, and celebrating accomplishments.